- A white priming or ground made of chalk, gypsum, burnt gypsum, zinc oxide, or whiting mixed with glue or occasionally casein. Used to prepare wooden panels or other supports for painting, gilding, or other decorative processes.
- In general meaning, images that portray a sacred entity and that are themselves regarded as sacred. In specific meaning, the term is typically used particularly for Christian images produced in the Eastern Rite churches, since the 6th century, according to prescribed formulas of subject (Christ, the Virgin, saints, and the great feasts) and composition, for devotional use in the church or home. Most commonly comprising tempera on panel, but they may be in any two-dimensional or relief medium, including fresco. Christians who venerate icons make the distinction between veneration and worship, although in actual practice the distinction is blurred. For a non-Christian image that is sacred or embodies a deity, use "idol" or "cult image."
- Any dispersion of pigment in a liquid binder. Paint is applied with a brush, roller, sprayer, or by dipping and dries to form a decorative or protective film.
- Wood in the form of broad, thin, flat or sometimes curved pieces that serve as a support for media in visual works; examples are paintings on wood. In architecture and other constructive arts, use "panels (surface components" to refer to a panel, whether of wood or another material, that is typically a compartment of a surface either sunken below or raised above the general level, and set in a molding or other border, as in a frame, sometimes of different color or material.
- Refers to the culture of the modern nation of Russia, or to the cultures that have occupied the principal lands of historic Russia in eastern Europe and northern and western Asia. It may also be used to refer to the larger group of cultures controlled by the historic Soviet Union.
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