- Refers to the cultures of the continent of Asia, which is in the eastern hemisphere, and is bounded by the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Arctic Ocean, and is generally considered to be delimited on the west by the Ural Mountains. It also refers to the numerous islands off the coast of Asia.
- Rounded, cuplike, hollow parts of objects, such as the body of a stemmed vessel or the part of a pipe in which tobacco is burned.
- The cultures, styles, and periods characteristic of China. To specifically refer to the cultures of ancient Chine, use "Ancient Chinese."
- Refers to a Chinese dynastic culture, style, and period dating to 960 to 1279 CE. It was a time of social, economic, and artistic invention and transition; in particular, an unsurpassed refinement was achieved in many of the arts. As society shifted away from being one of aristocrats towards one of meritorious commoners, the ruling class sought to shore up their power. For instance, emperors promoted the painting of themes associated with dynastic legitimacy and stability. The Song emperors were among China's most culturally enlightened rulers and many were even accomplished artists in their own right. Since the Song emperors were less powerful than their Han and Tang predecessors and because they maintained a tenuous peace with their hostile neighbors, the art of this period is introspective. The Song period is best known for landscape painting, although ceramics, sculpture, and architecture also flourished. Clay and wood often replaced stone for sculpture, allowing for softer, more lifelike figures. Song architecture is notably elongated and thin with curved roofs and a distinctive Song spire. Pagodas were first constructed of masonry during this period. There are two divisions within this style and period: Northern Song, dating to 960 to 1127, and Southern Song, dating to 1127 to 1279.
- A type of pottery midway between earthenware and porcelain being made of clay and a fusible stone. It is fired to a point where partial vitrification renders it impervious to liquids, but, unlike porcelain, it is very seldom more than faintly translucent. The vitrification makes it unnecessary to add a glaze, but for reasons of utility and appearance decorative glazes are sometimes used, such as salt glaze and lead glaze.
- Containers designed to serve as receptacles for a liquid or other substance, usually those of circular section and made of some durable material; especially containers of this nature in domestic use, employed in connection with the preparation or serving of food or drink, and usually of a size suitable for carrying by hand.
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