Makunda (Initiation Mask)Early 20th century - Mid 20th century
Wood with raffia, paint, fabric, and rubber
31 1/2 in. x 15 9/16 in. x 15 9/16 in. (80.01 cm x 39.53 cm x 39.53 cm)
Bryn Mawr College
Accession Number: 99.3.35
Other Number(s): 26 (140) (Neufeld Collection Number)
Geography: Africa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Wamba River
Classification: Ceremonial and Performance Artifacts; Masks
Culture/Nationality: Yaka, Bayaka, Congolese, West African, African
Collection: Neufeld Collection
Keywords Click a term to view the records with the same keywordThis object has the following keywords:
- African - Refers to the cultures of the continent of Africa, which is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and the Mediterranean Sea.
- Central African - Styles and cultures from a wide region of Africa that straddles the Equator and is drained largely by the Congo River system.
- masks - Refers to coverings for all or part of the face, usually with openings for the eyes and sometimes the mouth. They are worn to hide or alter the identity of the wearer or for protection. Masks as cultural objects have been used throughout the world in all periods since the Stone Age. Masks are extremely varied in appearance, function, and fundamental meaning. They may be associated with ceremonies that have religious and social significance or are concerned with funerary customs, fertility rites, or curing sickness. They may be used on festive occasions or to portray characters in a dramatic performance and in re-enactments of mythological events. They may be used for warfare and as protective devices in certain sports. They are also employed as architectural ornaments.
- raffia - Strong fiber from leafstalks of palms of the genus Raphia, native to Africa and other places. Raffia fibers are used in their natural state by splitting apart thick sections and knotting the ends together. The fibers are a pale cream color and are often dyed to bright colors. Raffia is used to make skirts, woven into baskets, hats, bags, and mats. It is also used to make a fine grade of paper similar to Japanese papers.
- wood - The principal tissue of trees and other plants that provides both strength and a means of conducting nutrients. Wood is one of the most versatile materials known.
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Exhibition ListThis object was included in the following exhibitions:
- Selected Works of Art, Archaeology, Ethnography and Decorative Arts from the College's Collections Bryn Mawr College , Feb 20, 2002 – Feb 24, 2002
- African Images, Western Imageries: Collecting and Recollecting African Bryn Mawr College , Sep 26, 1999 – Jun 15, 2000
Owner Name: Mace Neufeld and Helen Katz Neufeld, Class of 1953
Place: Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania, US
Ownership End Date: 12/17/1997
Bibliography ListThe following Bibliography exist for this object:
- "African Heritage Document and Research Center." (Accessed June 11, 2020): AHDRC.eu. Record No.: 0196226.
Comparanda ListThe following Comparanda exist for this object:
- Jean- Baptiste Bacquart, The Tribal Arts of Africa (New York, NY: Thames & Hudson, 1998), 186. Figure Number: B
- Iris Hahner-Herzog and Maria Kecskesi. African Masks: From the Barbier-Mueller Collection (Munich, Germany: Prestel, 2002), Figure Number: 78.
- "Fowler Museum at UCLA Online Collections." (Accessed April 7, 2020): https://www.fowler.ucla.edu/collections/home/. Accession No.: X83.978.
Related Bibliography ListThe following Related Bibliography exist for this object:
- Jean- Baptiste Bacquart, The Tribal Arts of Africa (New York, NY: Thames & Hudson, 1998), 184-187.
- Iris Hahner-Herzog and Maria Kecskesi. African Masks: From the Barbier-Mueller Collection (Munich, Germany: Prestel, 2002), 271.
- Kenneth Lee Adelman, "The Art of the Yaka." African Arts 9, no. 1 (October 1975): 41-43.
- "ÌMỌ̀ DÁRA." (Accessed May 10, 2020): Imodara.com. https://www.imodara.com/discover/dr-congo-yaka-makunda-initiation-mask-ndeemba/.
Portfolio List Click a portfolio name to view all the objects in that portfolioThis object is a member of the following portfolios:
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