- Refers to a broad range of alloys of copper, specifically any non-ferrous alloy of copper, tin, and zinc or other trace metals. Bronze was made before 3,000 BCE -- possibly as early as 10,000 BCE, although its common use in tools and decorative items is dated only in later artifacts. The proportions of copper and tin vary widely, from 70 to 95 percent copper in surviving ancient artifacts. Because of the copper base, bronze may be very malleable and easy to work. By the Middle Ages in Europe, it was recognized that using the metals in certain proportions could yield specific properties. Some modern bronzes contain no tin at all, substituting other metals such as aluminum, manganese, and even zinc. Historically, the term was used interchangeably with "latten." U.S. standard bronze is composed of 90% copper, 7% tin and 3% zinc. Ancient bronze alloys sometimes contained up to 14% tin.
- Culture, style, and period of the Christian states of the eastern Mediterranean during the rule of the Byzantine Empire (330 - 1453 CE). Byzantine art and culture was carried throughout much of the Christian world, and lasted into the 16th century in eastern Europe. The style is characterized by imperial and religious subject matter, and a movement away from the original Greek naturalistic forms to favor ritualistic stylization, intended to suggest the spiritual. For the culture and style of the Italian and western Mediterranean Christian world roughly from the third to the mid-ninth century CE, use "Early Christian."
- Ancient Roman copper coins of the 3rd and 4th centuries, replaced by centenionales.
- Staffs or batons borne by sovereigns as ceremonial emblems of authority.
- Ceremonial chairs or seats occupied by a monarch, prelate, or other high dignitary, especially on state or other special occasions; usually placed upon a dais and covered with a canopy.
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For RTI photography of this object see: http://www.brynmawr.edu/library/carpenter/RTI/webRTIViewer/C1014.html
This object was included in the following exhibitions:
A Treasury of Knowledge: An Exhibition of the Bryn Mawr Collection of Ancient Coins
, 9/1/2005 - 12/1/2005
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<ref name=BMC>cite web |url=http://triarte.brynmawr.edu/objects-1/info/159282 |title=Byzantine Follis of Nicomedia Issued by Justin II and Sophia |author=Bryn Mawr College Library Special Collections |accessdate=8/1/2021 |publisher=Bryn Mawr College</ref>
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