- Refers to a broad range of alloys of copper, specifically any non-ferrous alloy of copper, tin, and zinc or other trace metals. Bronze was made before 3,000 BCE -- possibly as early as 10,000 BCE, although its common use in tools and decorative items is dated only in later artifacts. The proportions of copper and tin vary widely, from 70 to 95 percent copper in surviving ancient artifacts. Because of the copper base, bronze may be very malleable and easy to work. By the Middle Ages in Europe, it was recognized that using the metals in certain proportions could yield specific properties. Some modern bronzes contain no tin at all, substituting other metals such as aluminum, manganese, and even zinc. Historically, the term was used interchangeably with "latten." U.S. standard bronze is composed of 90% copper, 7% tin and 3% zinc. Ancient bronze alloys sometimes contained up to 14% tin.
- Any of various forms of protective coverings for the head, usually made of a hard material, including the outside steel layer of helmets that consist of inner and outer parts.
- Relatively short, light throwing spears used since ancient times in warfare and in hunting large game. Use also for the light shafts with pointed metal tip thrown for distance in track and field competition.
- General term for armor pieces carried in the hand or on the arm, used to parry an opponent's blows or provide shelter from projectiles. They have existed worldwide throughout history in a wide variety of sizes, shapes, and materials.
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<ref name=BMC>cite web |url=http://triarte.brynmawr.edu/objects-1/info/159288 |title=Reproduction of Imperial As of Rome Issued by Claudius |author=Bryn Mawr College Library Special Collections |accessdate=9/24/2021 |publisher=Bryn Mawr College</ref>
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