- Refers to a broad range of alloys of copper, specifically any non-ferrous alloy of copper, tin, and zinc or other trace metals. Bronze was made before 3,000 BCE -- possibly as early as 10,000 BCE, although its common use in tools and decorative items is dated only in later artifacts. The proportions of copper and tin vary widely, from 70 to 95 percent copper in surviving ancient artifacts. Because of the copper base, bronze may be very malleable and easy to work. By the Middle Ages in Europe, it was recognized that using the metals in certain proportions could yield specific properties. Some modern bronzes contain no tin at all, substituting other metals such as aluminum, manganese, and even zinc. Historically, the term was used interchangeably with "latten." U.S. standard bronze is composed of 90% copper, 7% tin and 3% zinc. Ancient bronze alloys sometimes contained up to 14% tin.
- Representations of only the head and shoulders of a figure.
- Authors ol compositions characterized by condensed language chosen for sound and suggestive power as well as meaning.
- Copies of art images, art objects, decorative arts, or other valued images or objects, made without intent to deceive; with regard to art images, it includes photographic reproductions. The term implies more precise and faithful imitation than does the term "copies (derivative objects)." Where the intent is to deceive, see "forgeries" or "counterfeits." For prints copying other two-dimensional works, typically dating from before the widespread use of photography, use "reproductive prints."
- Three-dimensional works of art in which images and forms are produced in relief, in intaglio, or in the round. The term refers particularly to art works created by carving or engraving a hard material, by molding or casting a malleable material (which usually then hardens), or by assembling parts to create a three-dimensional object. It is typically used to refer to large or medium-sized objects made of stone, wood, bronze, or another metal. Small objects are typically referred to as "carvings" or another appropriate term. "Sculpture" refers to works that represent tangible beings, objects, or groups of objects, or are abstract works that have defined edges and boundaries and can be measured. As three-dimensional works become more diffused in space or time, or less tangible, use appropriate specific terms, such as "mail art" or "environmental art."
Click an image to view a larger version
This object was included in the following exhibitions:
The Deanery Remembered
Bryn Mawr College
, 5/1/1985 - 5/29/1985