- Watercraft generally smaller and less seaworthy than ships and generally not designed to cross large open waters.
- Art of writing, particularly the creation of beautiful, elegant letters or flourishes by hand with a pen, either in unjoined characters or in cursive writing.
- Works composed primarily of beautiful, elegant letters or flourishes that are typically created by hand with a pen, either in unjoined characters or in cursive writing. May also refer to similar works created by computer or another means.
- The cultures, styles, and periods characteristic of China. To specifically refer to the cultures of ancient Chine, use "Ancient Chinese."
- Exact copies of an original object, usually in the same dimensions as the original, especially of books, documents, prints, and drawings. Today often reproduced photographically; in the past, reproduced by engraving or other printmaking process.
- Creative works, usually two-dimensional, depicting an outdoor scene dominated by the land, hills, fields, sky, trees, fields, rivers or other bodies of water, and other natural elements. Landscapes may include a near point of view in the foreground, but also usually depict a view into the distance. Landscapes may contain architecture or figures, but the primary focus remains the land. When an ocean, sea, or other large body of water dominates the picture, use "seascapes." For actual areas of land rather than depictions, use "landscapes (environments)."
- Unique works in which images are formed primarily by the direct application of pigments suspended in oil, water, egg yolk, molten wax, or other liquid, arranged in masses of color, onto a generally two-dimensional surface.
- Refers to paintings having a long, narrow scroll format. Term is often used in the context of Chinese and Japanese paintings on either hanging scrolls (kakemono, if Japanese) or on handscrolls (emakimono, if Japanese). For written documents on long, rolled strips, see "scrolls (information artifacts)."
- Refers to a Chinese dynastic culture, style, and period dating 1127 to 1279. The dynasty was established by Gaozong (reigned 1127-1162), son of the last emperor of the Northern Song. The dynasty had its capital at Nanjing and later at Lin'an and it ruled the area south of the Huai River. Foreign influence was avoided and archaic traditions were often drawn on. Landscape remained the most important genre of painting with artists such as Ma Yuan and Xia Gui depicting local, ethereal, gentle scenery in contrast to the craggy landscapes of Northern Song painters. This school of painting, called the Ma-Xia school, came out of the emperor's painting academy. In sharp contrast are the active and spontaneous brush paintings of Zen monks of the period. Since northern kilns were now unavailable, new southern centers of ceramic production began to be patronized by the court. Special guan (official) wares were made near the palace. Celadon-glazed stoneware in explicitly archaic forms was made at Longquan. A small factory producing Qingbai wares at Jingdezhen expanded during the period, eventually becoming the greatest center for ceramics in China. Jades and metalwork were often made in archaistic forms. The manufacture of the fine silk tapestry known as 'kesi' reached its pinnacle in the Southern Song. Gilded and painted wooden Buddhist sculptures featured sensuous bodies, enigmatic smiles, and a sense of vitality.
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This object was included in the following exhibitions:
An Appreciation of East Asian Aesthetics
Bryn Mawr College
, 3/23/2000 - 4/23/2000
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<ref name=BMC>cite web |url=http://triarte.brynmawr.edu/objects-1/info/180366 |title=Painting of The Red Cliff by Zhu Rui of the Northern Song with Calligraphy |author=Bryn Mawr College Library Special Collections |accessdate=9/16/2021 |publisher=Bryn Mawr College</ref>
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