- Refers to the cultures of the continent of Africa, which is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and the Mediterranean Sea.
- Patterns created by intertwining three or more strands of material into a plait. This is often achieved with human hair or used as the basis of a hairstyle.
- Refers to works executed by cutting a figure or design out of a solid material such as stone or wood. It typically refers to works that are relatively small in size, are part of a larger work, or are not considered art. For large and medium-sized three-dimensional works of art, use the broader term "sculpture" or another appropriate term.
- Physical injury to a thing, such as impairs its value or usefulness.
- Masks that enclose the head entirely or in part, especially those worn during African ceremonies and masquerades.
- Ceremonies formally admitting someone into a community, organization, or other group, or investing them with a particular role or status.
- Refers to coverings for all or part of the face, usually with openings for the eyes and sometimes the mouth. They are worn to hide or alter the identity of the wearer or for protection. Masks as cultural objects have been used throughout the world in all periods since the Stone Age. Masks are extremely varied in appearance, function, and fundamental meaning. They may be associated with ceremonies that have religious and social significance or are concerned with funerary customs, fertility rites, or curing sickness. They may be used on festive occasions or to portray characters in a dramatic performance and in re-enactments of mythological events. They may be used for warfare and as protective devices in certain sports. They are also employed as architectural ornaments.
- Styles and cultures from the region comprising the westernmost area of the African continent, defined by the United Nations as including the modern nations of Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Cape Verde, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo.
- Refers to female human beings from young adulthood through old age.
- The principal tissue of trees and other plants that provides both strength and a means of conducting nutrients. Wood is one of the most versatile materials known.
Click an image to view a larger version
Owner Name: Jane Martin, Class of 1953
Place: Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania
Ownership Start Date: November 1984 - November 1985
Ownership End Date: May 1, 2016
Owner Name: Muhammed Sillah
Ownership End Date: November 1984 - November 1985
Remarks: Likely purchased in Monrovia, Liberia
The following Bibliography exist for this object:
"African Heritage Document and Research Center."
(Accessed June 11, 2020):
Record No.: 0177757.
The following Comparanda exist for this object:
"Douglas Yaney Gallery: African Tribal Art."
(Accessed August 14, 2020):
Douglas Yaney Gallery,
Related Bibliography List
The following Related Bibliography exist for this object:
(Accessed May 10, 2020):
Ruth B. Phillips,
"Masking in Mende Sande Society Initiation Rituals."
Africa: Journal of the International African Institute
48, no. 3
J. V. Olufemi Richards,
"The Sande Mask."
7, no. 2
"Cosmos, Cosmetics, and the Spirit of Bondo."
18, no. 3
Syvlia Ardyn Boone,
Radiance from the Waters: Ideals of Feminine Beauty in Mende Art
(New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1986),