- In the context of art and culture, the culture of the indigenous peoples of the northern polar region of the earth, including the Arctic Ocean and the northernmost parts of Asia, Europe, and North America. The term may also refer to the animals, plants, climate, geology, geography, and oceanography of the area.
- The rigid, calcareous material that is white in color and forms the skeleton of vertebrates; primarily composed of calcium hydroxyapatite with smaller amounts of calcium carbonate, calcium fluoride, magnesium phosphate, and ossein, a high molecular weight protein. Bones have a concentric structure with central lymphatic canals surrounded by a spongy lamellar region protected by a dense outer cortex. Bone has been carved and used since ancient times for many purposes, including fish-hooks, spear heads, needles, handles, and art objects. Bones were also burnt to produce bone black and boiled to produce bone glue. Bone can be distinguished from ivory by being generally whiter, more porous, and less dense.
- Refers to works executed by cutting a figure or design out of a solid material such as stone or wood. It typically refers to works that are relatively small in size, are part of a larger work, or are not considered art. For large and medium-sized three-dimensional works of art, use the broader term "sculpture" or another appropriate term.
- Figurines representing humans or animals, including but not restricted to those intended as toys for children, usually girls, or as collectibles for adults. Dolls are commonly in the form of a baby or woman, often with changeable clothes; they may have moveable arms and legs. Doll may be made of cloth (rag dolls), wood, clay, porcelain, wax, paper, plastic, celluloid, corn husks, or other materials. Dolls may also be figurines used for ceremonial, religious, or decorative purposes. Archaeological evidence suggests that dolls were the first playthings; they have been found in Babylonian and Egyptian tombs from ca. 3000 BCE. In ancient Greece and Rome, maturing girls consecrated their childhood dolls to the goddesses. Cloth dolls in the form of animals are generally called "stuffed toys."
- Three-dimensional works that represent humans, animals, or mythical beasts at less than half life-size. While the term may be used interchangeably with "statuette" in certain situations, it differs in that a statuette is always free-standing while a figurine may be part of a larger work, such as a decorative detail on a candelabra or mirror.
- Typically reserved to refer narrowly to the cultures of the native peoples of the United States and Canada, excluding the Eskimos and Aleuts. For the indigenous peoples of Canada use the term "First Nations." For the broader concept of the cultures of any native peoples of Central America, South America, North America, or the West Indies who are considered to belong to the Mongoloid division of the human species, use "Amerindian (culture)."
- Refers to the cultures of the continent of North America, which is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, the Arctic Circle, and Central America. In classifications schemes based on physical geography, Central America, and North America are parts of the same continent.
- Material objects contrived for amusement rather than for practical use by children or pets, or intended as collectibles by adults. Toys are generally miniature versions of real beings or objects that lend themselves to imaginative or imitative play. Toys may also be items for use in games. Among the earliest toys were dolls and balls.
- Refers to the culture of the Yup'ik, a Western Eskimo group of Siberian Asia and of Saint Lawrence Island and the Diomede Islands in the Bering Sea and Strait. The Yup'ik are culturally related to the Chukchi.
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Dimensions: 4.125 x 1.5 x 1.375 in. (10.478 x 3.81 x 3.493 cm)
Related Bibliography List
The following Related Bibliography exist for this object: