- Objects carved from ivory, or from natural substances resembling ivory, such as bone. When possible, use the material term plus a more specific object name, such as "ivory" + "diptychs."
- Nationality, periods, cultures, and styles found in Japan, either in historical times or in the present.
- Period and style that coincides with the rule of emperor Mutsuhito, called Meiji, from 1868 to 1912. The period is characterized by a transformation from feudalism to a modern industrial state, taking western nations as a model. After the Vienna Exposition of 1873, artists were encouraged to produce traditional arts and crafts for export, such as carvings in wood and ivory and laquer. The art of the period also saw the influence of western art and architecture.