Gila Polychrome Ware SherdPueblo IV or Pithouse III
1300 - 1400
1 5/16 x 1 1/2 x 1/4 in. (3.3 x 3.8 x 0.6 cm)
Bryn Mawr College
Accession Number: 64.34.12
Geography: North and Central America, United States, Arizona
Classification: Unclassifiable Artifacts; Artifact Remnants; Sherds
Culture/Nationality: Ancestral Puebloan, Anasazi, Mogollon, Native American
This object has the following keywords:
Ancestral Puebloan*, clay*, Mogollon*, Native American*, North American*, sherds*, Southwestern Native American*
- Ancestral Puebloan - Refers to the style and culture of a North American civilization that existed in the "Four Corners" area, where the boundaries of the states of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah intersect. The culture flourished from the first century CE to around 1300 CE, and descendants of this cultural group probably include the modern Pueblo Indians now living in New Mexico and Arizona. The style is noted for fine baskets, pottery, cloth, ornaments, tools, and great architectural achievements, including cliff dwellings and apartment-house-like villages, or pueblos. In some classification schemes, the modern Pueblo cultures are considered later phases of this people, though most schemes end this culture with the abandonment of the cliff dwellings around 1300 CE.
- clay - Naturally occurring sediments that are produced by chemical actions resulting during the weathering of rocks. Clays are composed of hydrated aluminum silicates, such as Kaolinite, Illite, Palygorskite, Attapulgite, Bentonite, and Montmorillonite. Small amounts of other minerals can change the color (white, yellow, brown or red) and texture of the clays. Clays may include all earths that form a paste with water and harden when heated.
- Mogollon - Refers to a culture and style that existed in the mainly mountainous areas of what is now southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico, including the Mogollon Mountains, for which the culture is named. It probably developed from the earlier Cochise culture, and it flourished from around 200 BCE until around 1200. It was a hunting and gathering culture, with some cultivation of crops. It is particularly known for the first production of pottery in the Southwest, the technology for which may have been imported from Mexico. Pottery styles include several distinct phases, starting with a plain brown ware, a later polished red ware, then red-on-brown ware, red-on-white ware, and finally the famous black-on-white ware, which was probably inspired by the Ancestral Puebloan.
- Native American - Typically reserved to refer narrowly to the cultures of the native peoples of the United States and Canada, excluding the Eskimos and Aleuts. For the indigenous peoples of Canada use the term "First Nations." For the broader concept of the cultures of any native peoples of Central America, South America, North America, or the West Indies who are considered to belong to the Mongoloid division of the human species, use "Amerindian (culture)."
- North American - Refers to the cultures of the continent of North America, which is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, the Arctic Circle, and Central America. In classifications schemes based on physical geography, Central America, and North America are parts of the same continent.
- sherds - Limited to fragments of pottery or glass.
- Southwestern Native American - Styles and cultures Southwestern Native America.
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