Mende (active ) Primary
Sande Society Sowei Helmet MaskLate 19th century - Early 20th century
16 1/8 in. x 7 1/2 in. x 10 1/16 in. (41 cm x 19 cm x 25.5 cm)
Bryn Mawr College
Sande Society helmet masks symbolize an ideal of beauty with their high foreheads, elaborate braided hairstyles, and healthy black complexions. According to oral tradition, the Sande spirit is a water spirit; therefore it is believed that the rings on the neck of the mask symbolize the rippling of water. Among the Temne, the rings of the mask are viewed as the outer shell of a moth undergoing metamorphosis, which represents the girl’s transformation into a mature woman.
This object has the following keywords:
- African - Refers to the cultures of the continent of Africa, which is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and the Mediterranean Sea.
- carvings - Refers to works executed by cutting a figure or design out of a solid material such as stone or wood. It typically refers to works that are relatively small in size, are part of a larger work, or are not considered art. For large and medium-sized three-dimensional works of art, use the broader term "sculpture" or another appropriate term.
- ceremonial masks - Refers to masks created for or used in ceremonies or rituals.
- helmet masks - Masks that enclose the head entirely or in part, especially those worn during African ceremonies and masquerades.
- horns - The non-deciduous excrescences, often curved and pointed, consisting of an epidermal sheath growing about a bony core on the head of certain mammals such as cattle, sheep, goats, and antelopes, or formed from matted hair on the rhinoceros. Horns serve as displays and as weapons of offence or defense.
- initiations - Ceremonies formally admitting someone into a community, organization, or other group, or investing them with a particular role or status.
- masks - Refers to coverings for all or part of the face, usually with openings for the eyes and sometimes the mouth. They are worn to hide or alter the identity of the wearer or for protection. Masks as cultural objects have been used throughout the world in all periods since the Stone Age. Masks are extremely varied in appearance, function, and fundamental meaning. They may be associated with ceremonies that have religious and social significance or are concerned with funerary customs, fertility rites, or curing sickness. They may be used on festive occasions or to portray characters in a dramatic performance and in re-enactments of mythological events. They may be used for warfare and as protective devices in certain sports. They are also employed as architectural ornaments.
- rites of passage - Ritual ceremonies performed to facilitate or mark a person's change of status upon any of several important social and personal occasions, such as the onset of puberty.
- ritual objects - Objects used for a particular ritual activity, often as part of a ceremony.
- scarifications - Refers to permanent marks, such as symbols, patterns, or other designs, made on human skin by scarring, done for social or cultural reasons or for personal decoration.
- secret societies - Any of various societies, the members of which are sworn to keep the rules, activities, and purposes secret from nonmembers.
- Sierra Leonean - Style and culture of the nation of Sierra Leone.
- West African - Styles and cultures from the region comprising the westernmost area of the African continent, defined by the United Nations as including the modern nations of Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Cape Verde, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo.
- women - Refers to female human beings from young adulthood through old age.
- wood - The principal tissue of trees and other plants that provides both strength and a means of conducting nutrients. Wood is one of the most versatile materials known.
- Mirrors and Masks: Reflections and Constructions of the Self Bryn Mawr College , Mar 23, 2017 – Jun 4, 2017
Owner Name: Mace Neufeld and Helen Katz Neufeld, Class of 1953
Place: Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania, US
Ownership End Date: 12/20/1996
Owner Name: Pace Primitive
Place: New York, New York
Acquisition Method: Unknown
Disposal Method: Unknown
Ownership Start Date: Likely 1978
Remarks: Frederick John Lamp said on 12/7/2021 that he photographed this mask at Pace Primitive in New York in 1978.
The following Bibliography exist for this object:
- "African Heritage Document and Research Center." (Accessed June 11, 2020): AHDRC.eu. Record No.: 0177765.
The following Comparanda exist for this object:
- Miklós Szalay, Die Kunst Schwarzafrikas: Kunst und Gesellschaft (Munich, Germany: Trickster Verlag, 1994), 32, 35.
- Jules Staub, Beiträge zur Kenntnis der materiellen Kultur der Mendi in der Sierra Leone (Solothurn, Derendingen: Vogt-Schild Druck AG, 1936), Figure Number: XXV-3.
- Burkhard Gottschalk, Bundu : Buschteufel im Land der Mende (Meerbusch, Germany: Verlag U. Gottschalk, 1990), 39.
- "Museum of Fine Arts Boston: Online Collections." (Accessed July 1, 2020): collections.mfa.org. Accession No.: 1992.401.
- "Glasgow Museums Collections Navigator." (Accessed March 25, 2022): Glasgow Museums, http://collections.glasgowmuseums.com/mwebcgi/mweb?request=home. Accession No.: A.1985.13.d.
- "Glasgow Museums Collections Navigator." (Accessed March 25, 2022): Glasgow Museums, http://collections.glasgowmuseums.com/mwebcgi/mweb?request=home. Accession No.: A.1985.13.c.
The following Related Bibliography exist for this object:
- "ÌMỌ̀ DÁRA." (Accessed May 10, 2020): Imodara.com. https://www.imodara.com/discover/sierra-leone-mende-ndoli-jowei-sande-sowei-helmet-mask/.
- Ruth B. Phillips, "Masking in Mende Sande Society Initiation Rituals." Africa: Journal of the International African Institute 48, no. 3 (1978): 265-277.
- J. V. Olufemi Richards, "The Sande Mask." African Arts 7, no. 2 (Winter 1974): 48-51.
- Frederick Lamp, "Cosmos, Cosmetics, and the Spirit of Bondo." African Arts 18, no. 3 (May 1985): 28-43, 98-99.
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