- Refers to the styles and culture that developed in antiquity in the Nile Valley in the area of modern-day Egypt and southwards. For the cultures and styles of the modern nation of Egypt, use "Egypt (modern)."
- Ancient objects made from a composite material consisting of a body of sintered quartz coupled with an alkaline glaze surface. Faience was used for decorating beads, amulets, figurines, and other small objects. Invented in Mesopotamia or Iran ca. 4500 BCE, the production of faience continued until the mid-7th century CE. It is distinguished from later European earthenware, which is known by the same name.
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