- Designates Roman coins of the 3rd century CE distinguished by a radiate crown on the depiction of the emperor; originally of silver and probably a double denarius, later debased.
- Refers to a broad range of alloys of copper, specifically any non-ferrous alloy of copper, tin, and zinc or other trace metals. Bronze was made before 3,000 BCE -- possibly as early as 10,000 BCE, although its common use in tools and decorative items is dated only in later artifacts. The proportions of copper and tin vary widely, from 70 to 95 percent copper in surviving ancient artifacts. Because of the copper base, bronze may be very malleable and easy to work. By the Middle Ages in Europe, it was recognized that using the metals in certain proportions could yield specific properties. Some modern bronzes contain no tin at all, substituting other metals such as aluminum, manganese, and even zinc. Historically, the term was used interchangeably with "latten." U.S. standard bronze is composed of 90% copper, 7% tin and 3% zinc. Ancient bronze alloys sometimes contained up to 14% tin.
- Refers to the period in history and the style of art that developed when the Roman Republic ceased to exist and Rome expanded its territory and was ruled by emperors. The period is generally considered to begin with Octavian's victory at the Battle of Actium in 31 BCE, and to last through the rule of the Severans. For later emperors, see "Late Antique." For the period and culture of the Holy Roman Empire, use "Holy Roman Imperial." Note that some classifications include the Tetrarchic, Constantinian, and the Holy Roman Empire in the "Roman Empire."
- Flags, banners, figures, or other objects displayed or carried as an identifying symbol or rallying-point of a leader, public officer, organization, etc. Examples include banners of noble houses, flags of nations, and the colors of a military unit.
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Owner Name: Clarissa Compton Dryden, Class of 1932, MA 1935
Place: Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania, USA
Acquisition Method: Inherited
Disposal Method: Donation
Ownership Start Date: 1925
Ownership End Date: 1983
Remarks: A relative of archaeologist, Charles Densmore Curtis (1875-1925), Dryden presented the Ella Riegel Museum with items she inherited from his collection of Greek, Roman, and Etruscan artifacts throughout the 1950s-1980s
Owner Name: Charles Densmore Curtis (1875-1925)
Disposal Method: Bequest
Ownership Start Date: LIkely ca. 1900 or later
Ownership End Date: 1925