- Refers to the culture and styles that developed in antiquity in the geographical area of modern Turkey.
- Refers to the period and culture associated with the transitional phase between the Stone Age and the Bronze Age. It is characterized by the hammering, melting, and casting of copper for ornaments and tools, and is distinguished from Bronze Age technologies in that the copper was typically not or only seldomly combined with tin or other metal in an alloy, and stone tools were used at the same time as metal ones. Chalcolithic cultures developed at different times in different parts of the world, ranging from early sporadic use of copper around 7,000 BCE in the Near East to established use by around 1,900 BCE in Britain.
- Limited to fragments of pottery or glass.
- Refers to a period and culture that developed in southern Mesopotamia during the 5th millennium BCE, named after the site of Tell Al-Ubaid. The period is divided into four phases based on a sequence of pottery styles, which consist generally of a black painted, greenish buff ceramic with geometric decoration.
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