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Ancient Greek (active ca. 530 BCE - 500 BCE) Primary
Attic Red-Figure Kylix (Drinking Cup) with Inscriptions and YouthsLate Archaic
ca. 510 BCE
4 7/8 x 12 13/16 x 15 3/4 in. (12.4 x 32.5 x 40 cm)
Bryn Mawr College
Chamber B, Tomb LXXIX at Vulci, Eretria. Found with a large Panathenaic amphora, red-clay olpe, fragments of a large bucchero vase, red-clay cup, small alabaster alabastron, ivory handle in the form of a cylinder, fragments of a iron spear.
This object has the following keywords:
- Archaic - Refers to the pottery style found in Persia around 6000 BCE. The style is characterized by fine, plain buff pottery tempered with straw that is sometimes decorated with simple red or orange painted designs.
- Attic - Style and culture of the region of Attica. For culture particular to the capital of Attica, Athens, use "Athenian."
- cups - Open bowl-shaped vessels, used chiefly for drinking, often having one handle, but sometimes two handles or none, generally on a low foot-ring; also includes similar bowl-shaped vessels, generally without handles, resting on a stem and supported by a spreading foot. Occasionally made with a lid.
- inscriptions - Words, texts, lettering, or symbols marked on a work, including texts, legends, documentation notes, or commemoration. For standardized symbols or notations on objects that convey official information, use "marks (symbols)."
- kalos inscriptions - Ancient Greek vase inscriptions that take the form of "so-and-so [is] kalos," kalos meaning handsome or beautiful, with an erotic connotation. Some such inscriptions are found on walls as well. The inscriptions are thought to indicate male homosexual love or a cult of celebrity, associated with pederastic courtships that were customary in ancient Greece; they probably reflect the emotions of the patron of the vessel rather than those of the vase painter. The names are usually those of teenage artistocratic Athenians. Those that can be associated with known historical figures have played a significant role in establishing the chronology of Attic vase painting, for they were presumably written when the named person was young. Kale inscriptions for women also exist but they are outnumbered by kalos inscriptions more than twenty to one; the women who are praised in these inscriptions were probably courtesans. The majority of kalos inscriptions are on vases produced between 550 and 450 BCE.
- kylikes - Ancient Greek drinking vessels in the form of a broad, shallow bowl set on a high foot or pedestal with two upcurving handles.
- kylikes type B - A type of kylix characterized by one continuous curve from lip to foot and a broad and relatively shallow bowl. It was the most common red-figured cup, supplanting eye cups by about 500 BCE.
- Red-figure - Refers to a style of Greek vase painting that developed from the Black-figure style. It appeared in Athens around 530 BCE and spread to other areas of Greece, southern Italy, Etruria, and elsewhere in the Mediterranean area, until it disappeared in the third century BCE. The style is characterized by a particular technique, which involves the use of refined slip and a two-phase firing process to create a black ground through sintering, with figures reserved in red. The details of the figures are more fluid than in the Black-figure style, and are typically drawn with a brush, using both a defined, black relief line and a more dilute line that varies in color from dark gold to black.
- tondi - Circular paintings. For circular two-dimensional motifs, use "medallions (ornament areas)"; use "roundels" for circular panels in architectural contexts.
- vase paintings - Refers to two-dimensional decoration applied to pottery by using paint made of metallic oxides or other pigments held in suspension in slip or another medium. The term is particularly used to refer to Ancient Greek red- and black-figure works. See also "porcelain paintings (visual works)."
This object was included in the following exhibitions:
- Ancient Life on Greek Pottery Bryn Mawr College , Mar 30, 2015 – Jun 1, 2015
- Breaking Ground, Breaking Tradition: Bryn Mawr and the First Generation of Women Archaeologists Bryn Mawr College , Sep 19, 2007 – Dec 19, 2007
Owner Name: Joseph Clark Hoppin
Place: Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania, US
Acquisition Method: Purchased from Edward Perry Warren
Disposal Method: Donated to Bryn Mawr College
Ownership Start Date: 1901
Ownership End Date: 1901
Owner Name: Edward Perry Warren
Role: Buyer, Collector, Seller
Place: Lewes House, England
Acquisition Method: Possibly Purchased from Prince Alessandro Torlonia
Disposal Method: Sold to Joseph Clark Hoppin
Ownership Start Date: 1889-1901
Ownership End Date: 1901
Remarks: It remains unclear when and how exactly Warren obtained the vase (P.96). We do know from Warren's biography, that the German archaeologist and art dealer, Wolfgang Helbig, told Warren about the presence of signed vases from Vulci. Thus is appears that Helbig was some form of middle-man between Prince Torlonia and Warren. What that role comprised of exactly, whether it was simply knowledge or physical broker, is unknown.
Owner Name: Prince Alessandro Torlonia
Place: Vulci, Italy
Acquisition Method: Excavation in Vulci, Italy
Disposal Method: Sold to Edward Perry Warren
Ownership Start Date: 1889
Ownership End Date: 1889-1901
Remarks: In 1889, The French School in Rome received authorization to excavate on the land owned by Torlonia, which included the necropolis at Vulci. Under the direction of Stephane Gsell, they completed the excavations and published with funding from Torlonia. According to the excavation reports, Torlonia built a small museum to display the excavated pieces. How the vase (P.96) left the ownership of Prince Torlonia and to whom remains unclear. It is safe to say, however, that the German archaeologist and art dealer, Wolfgang Helbig, was aware of the collection at Vulci and might have had a hand in its transfer between individuals. We know from the biography of Edward Perry Warren, British collector and dealer that Helbig was the figure that told Warren about the signed vases from Vulci.
The following Bibliography exist for this object:
J. D. Beazley,
Attic Red-Figure Vase-Painters
Oxford, United Kingdom, 1963
Page Number: 147.18, 1610, 1576, 1587
Thomas H. Carpenter
and Thomas Mannack.
Beazley addenda; 1989
Oxford University Press, for the British Academy.
Oxford, United Kingdom, 1989
Page Number: 179
and Ruth Glynn.
Beazley addenda; 1982
Oxford University Press, for the British Academy.
Oxford, United Kingdom, 1982
Page Number: 89
- J.T. Cummings, "The Michigan State University Kylix and Its Painter." American Journal of Archaeology 73, no. 1 (January 1969): 70, and plate 30, figures 4 interior, A and B..
Gisela M.A. Richter,
Attic Red-Figured Vases
Yale University Press.
New Haven, CT, 1958
Page Number: 53.
Fouilles dans la Nécropole de Vulci
Paris, France, 1891
Page Number: 185-187
Oxford University Press.
New York, NY, 1990
Page Number: 1012
- Rudolf Wachter, "Attic Vase Inscriptions." (Accessed April 1, 2020): https://avi.unibas.ch/. Record No.: 2972.
Ann Harnwell Ashmead
and Kyle M. Phillips.
Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum, United States, Fascicule 13.
Princeton University Press.
Princeton, NJ, 1971
Page Number: 5-7, Figure Number: Plates 3-4
- Mary Hamilton Swindler, "The Bryn Mawr Collection of Greek Vases," American Journal of Archaeology 20, no. 3 (1916): 322-331, Figure Number: 10-12.
- The Classical Art Research Centre, "The Beazley Archive Online." Classical Art Research Centre. (Accessed April 1, 2020): University of Oxford, http://www.beazley.ox.ac.uk/index.htm. Record No.: 201306, Bryn Mawr (Pa), Bryn Mawr College, P96.
The following Comparanda exist for this object:
- J.T. Cummings, "The Michigan State University Kylix and Its Painter." American Journal of Archaeology 73, no. 1 (January 1969): 69-71, Figure Number: Plate 29, 1-3.
- J.T. Cummings, "The Michigan State University Kylix and Its Painter." American Journal of Archaeology 73, no. 1 (January 1969): 69-71, Figure Number: Plate 30, 7-9 .
- Mary Hamilton Swindler, "The Bryn Mawr Collection of Greek Vases," American Journal of Archaeology 20, no. 3 (1916): 339, Figure Number: 20.6.
This object is a member of the following portfolios:
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