Chimú or Chancay Textile Fragment (Discontinuous Warp and Weft) with Manta Ray ImageryLate Intermediate Period - Late Horizon
ca. 1000 - ca. 1534
13 3/8 x 12 5/8 x 1/16 in. (34 x 32 x 0.2 cm)
Bryn Mawr College
This object has the following keywords:
- <figure- and animal-derived motifs>
- Animalia - Kingdom containing multicellular organisms having cells bound by a plasma membrane and organized into tissue and specialized tissue systems that permit them to either move about in search of food or to draw food toward themselves. Unable to make their own food within themselves, as photosynthetic plants do, they rely on consuming preformed food. They possess a nervous system with sensory and motor nerves, enabling them to receive environmental stimuli and to respond with specialized movements.
- Aves - The class of vertebrate animals that are typically bipedal and warm-blooded, lay large-yolked hardshelled eggs, often arboreal, and possessing feathers, hollow bones, forelimbs adapted for flight (although some have lost the ability to fly) and hindlimbs for perching and locomotion, a four-chambered heart, keen vision, a horny beak without teeth, and a large muscular stomach. Birds arose from theropod dinosaurs, which were an order of carnivorous dinosaurs.
- camelid hair - Material made from the hair of camelids, especially South American camelids such as llama and alpaca. For fiber made from camels, use "camel hair."
- figure-derived form attributes - Characteristics and qualities of form, that are figure-derived.
- Geometric - Refers to a period, culture, and style that developed first in Attica, but was eventually found throughout Greece, in Italy, and in the Levant. It is generally held to have occurred from around 900 BCE to around 700 BCE, though some classification schemes omit the Protogeometric period and begin the Geometric period at 1100 BCE. In pottery it is characterized by dark-on-light decorations arranged in regularly spaced horizontal bands, and differs from Protogeometric style in that the designs are busier and the bands cover nearly the entire vessel. Designs include zigzags, triangles, meanders, swastikas, and distinctive stylized, angular human and animal figures. Similar designs and figural types were used in sculpture and other arts.
- geometric motifs - Design elements with geometrical themes.
- geometric shape - Shape characterized by regular shapes or patterns that are determined, constructed, or formed according to geometry.
- indigo - A natural dark blue colorant obtained from the tropical Indigofera tinctoria plants. The use of indigo was first mentioned in Indian manuscripts in the 4th century BCE; it was first exported to Europe in Roman times. The natural material is collected as a precipitate from a fermented solution of the plant, where the coloring component, indigotin, is extracted as a colorless glycoside that turns blue with oxidation. Indigo is a fine, intense powder which may be used directly as a pigment in oil, tempera, or watercolor media. Since the exposed pigment can fade rapidly in strong sunlight, it is rarely used in art or fine textiles today. However, it is still used to dye jeans, where its fading and uneven coloring have become favorable characteristics.
- Late Horizon - The seventh of the seven main chronological phases recognized in Andean archaeology, generally dating 1476-1534 CE, during which the Inca established an empire controlled from Cuzco, which eventually reached from central Chile to southern Colombia. The period ends in 1534, the year marking the fall of the Inca empire after the Spanish conquest.
- Late Intermediate Period - The sixth of the seven main chronological phases recognized in Andean archaeology, generally dating ca. 1000-1450 CE, following the collapse of Middle Horizon empires, including Tiahuanaco and Huari. During this time distinctive regional cultures emerged along the coast and in highland areas, including the Chimú empire. The political entities that developed during the late Intermediate Period were subsequently conquered by the Inca empire.
- Peruvian - Of or belonging to the nation of Peru or its people.
- red - Hue name for one of the three primary additive colors; that portion of the spectrum lying at the lowest frequencies of light discernible by the human eye, with a wavelength range between 630 and 760 nanometers. The term may refer to any of this group of colors that vary in lightness and saturation. Examples of red color in nature are that of blood and ripe cherries.
- textiles - General term for carpets, fabrics, costume, or other works made of textile materials, which are natural or synthetic fibers created by weaving, felting, knotting, twining, or otherwise processing. For works of art or high craft that employ textile as a medium, prefer "textile art (visual works)."
- warp - In weaving, the threads that are extended lengthwise in the loom, usually twisted harder than the "weft," with which these threads are crossed to form the web or piece.
- weft - The aggregate of transverse strands of a textile, woven through the warp. Specifically for individual strands of weft, prefer "picks (weft)."
- Clothed in Meaning: Archaeological Textiles from the Ancient Andes Bryn Mawr College , Mar 1, 2002 – Mar 29, 2002
The following Comparanda exist for this object:
- "Penn Museum Online Collections." Penn Museum Online Collections. (Accessed April 4, 2020): Penn Museum, https://www.penn.museum/collections/index.php. Accession No.: 32638.
- "Los Angeles County Museum of Art Online Collections." (Accessed May 14, 2020): lacma.org. Accession No.: M.77.96.
The following Related Bibliography exist for this object:
- Elena Phipps, The Peruvian Four-Selvaged Cloth (Los Angeles, CA: The Fowler Museum at UCLA, 2013), 58-63.
- Elena Phipps and Ann Peters. Pre-Columbian Textile Conference VII (Lincoln, NE: Zea Books, 2017), 171-173.
- William J. Conklin, "Structure as Meaning in Andean Textiles." Chungara: Revista de Antropología Chilena 29, no. 1 (1997): 109-131.
- Penelope Dransart, Textiles, Technical Practice and Power in the Andes (London, England: Archetype Publications, 2013), 220-222.
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