Byzantine Bronze 4 of Tarsus (?) Issued by Theodosius I388-393
1/2 in. (diameter) x 1/16 in. (1.3 cm x 0.1 cm)
Bryn Mawr College
This object has the following keywords:
- bronze - Refers to a broad range of alloys of copper, specifically any non-ferrous alloy of copper, tin, and zinc or other trace metals. Bronze was made before 3,000 BCE -- possibly as early as 10,000 BCE, although its common use in tools and decorative items is dated only in later artifacts. The proportions of copper and tin vary widely, from 70 to 95 percent copper in surviving ancient artifacts. Because of the copper base, bronze may be very malleable and easy to work. By the Middle Ages in Europe, it was recognized that using the metals in certain proportions could yield specific properties. Some modern bronzes contain no tin at all, substituting other metals such as aluminum, manganese, and even zinc. Historically, the term was used interchangeably with "latten." U.S. standard bronze is composed of 90% copper, 7% tin and 3% zinc. Ancient bronze alloys sometimes contained up to 14% tin.
- Byzantine - Culture, style, and period of the Christian states of the eastern Mediterranean during the rule of the Byzantine Empire (330 - 1453 CE). Byzantine art and culture was carried throughout much of the Christian world, and lasted into the 16th century in eastern Europe. The style is characterized by imperial and religious subject matter, and a movement away from the original Greek naturalistic forms to favor ritualistic stylization, intended to suggest the spiritual. For the culture and style of the Italian and western Mediterranean Christian world roughly from the third to the mid-ninth century CE, use "Early Christian."
- coins - Pieces of metal stamped by government authority for use as money.
- Gods and Goddesses - Added June 2010 by M. Weldon
- prisoners of war - Those taken by capture or surrender into the power of the enemy during war, especially military personnel.
- trophies - Objects taken as spoils in war or in hunting, or awarded as prizes for victory in contests; typically include such things as armor and weapons taken from an opponent in battle, stuffed and mounted skins, heads or other portions of a slain animal, and elaborate silver pieces awarded as contest prizes. Distinct from "trophies (monuments)", which are monuments erected as permanent reminders of military victories, usually containing images of the spoils of battle,.
The following Comparanda exist for this object:
- Hetty Goldman, "Excavations at Gozlu Kule, Tarsus: Volume III, Text," (1963): 82.
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