- Refers to the cultures of the continent of Asia, which is in the eastern hemisphere, and is bounded by the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Arctic Ocean, and is generally considered to be delimited on the west by the Ural Mountains. It also refers to the numerous islands off the coast of Asia.
- Refers to the period surrounding the ancient city of Ayudhya that existed from the mid-14th to the 18th century. In sculpture, the period mostly features images of Buddha cast in bronze, stone, or stucco. In the early 14th century, a refinement of sculptural styles culminated in the eThong style characterized by several sub-types of Buddha images. One type features the Buddha figure with a prominent forehead, almond eyes, straight lowered eyelids, and conical curls on the head. A second type displays stronger Khmer influences apparent in the square face and austere expression. The third type of Buddha sculptural style manifests an elongated body and a smiling expression. In architecture, the period features temple-sanctuary complexes known as wat, the more prominent ones being Wat Thanmikarat, featuring a staircase decorated with stucco lions and a bai sema or boundary stone made of slate; Wat Phutthaisawan, featuring Khmer-influenced galleries, stupas with redans, and wall paintings; Wat Yai Chaimongkhol, featuring elaborate stupas and wihans and rectangular galleries; and Wat Phra Ram, featuring a square plan, brick construction, and artificial pools. Ceramic styles also mature in this period, featuring brilliant colors of jade green, light grass green, blue-green, brown, pale honey, and white.
- Collectively, the class of sculptures, containers, or other objects executed in bronze, especially artifacts or works considered to be art. When possible, use the material term "bronze (metal)" plus a more specific object name, such as "bronze" + "figurines" or "bronze" + "bowl."
- Representations in any medium of Gautama Buddha.
- Refers to the philosophy and religion based on the enlightenment and teachings of the Buddha Gautama in the early sixth century BCE in the northeastern region of modern India. Playing dominant roles in the art and culture of Southeast Asia and East Asia, this religion is based on the transcendence of human suffering and pain through the acceptance of the limitations of individuality, the surrender of worldly desires and cravings that cause disappointment and sorrow, and the deliverance from the impermanence of living and individual ego based on wealth, social position, or family through the process of enlightenment (nirvana). The religion also centers around 'anatman', or no-self, the idea that the self is in a state of action or a series of changing manifestations rather than in a state of fixed, metaphysical substance. The structure of the religion is based on the Triratna ("Three Jewels" of Buddha), a tripartite schematic for living based on three elements: Buddha (the teacher), dharma (the teaching), and sangha (community).
- Three-dimensional works of art in which images and forms are produced in relief, in intaglio, or in the round. The term refers particularly to art works created by carving or engraving a hard material, by molding or casting a malleable material (which usually then hardens), or by assembling parts to create a three-dimensional object. It is typically used to refer to large or medium-sized objects made of stone, wood, bronze, or another metal. Small objects are typically referred to as "carvings" or another appropriate term. "Sculpture" refers to works that represent tangible beings, objects, or groups of objects, or are abstract works that have defined edges and boundaries and can be measured. As three-dimensional works become more diffused in space or time, or less tangible, use appropriate specific terms, such as "mail art" or "environmental art."
- Refers to the style and culture of the region known as modern Thailand. Artistic production primarily focuses on the crafting of porcelain and pottery, painting, sculpture, and architecture, and exhibits stylistic influences from China, India, and other regions and cultures in Southeast Asia. Temple styles in the region specifically imitate Hindu and Buddhist models with unique variations.
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