- Use both for bronze coins of the Roman Republic and for copper coins used during the Roman Empire from the 1st century BCE through the 3rd century CE.
- The fronts or forwardmost ends of watercraft or airships.
- Refers to a broad range of alloys of copper, specifically any non-ferrous alloy of copper, tin, and zinc or other trace metals. Bronze was made before 3,000 BCE -- possibly as early as 10,000 BCE, although its common use in tools and decorative items is dated only in later artifacts. The proportions of copper and tin vary widely, from 70 to 95 percent copper in surviving ancient artifacts. Because of the copper base, bronze may be very malleable and easy to work. By the Middle Ages in Europe, it was recognized that using the metals in certain proportions could yield specific properties. Some modern bronzes contain no tin at all, substituting other metals such as aluminum, manganese, and even zinc. Historically, the term was used interchangeably with "latten." U.S. standard bronze is composed of 90% copper, 7% tin and 3% zinc. Ancient bronze alloys sometimes contained up to 14% tin.
- Refers to the period in history and style of art that developed when Rome was ruled by the Republic, from its founding in 509 BCE through the Battle of Actium in 31 BCE or the formal establishment of the Empire in 27 BCE. Art produced during this period reflects the political power, glories, and distinguished ancestors of the ruling families, resulting in many portraits and historical reliefs. The style is characterized by the influence of Classical Greek art and an emphasis on extreme realism.
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