- Refers to the philosophy and religion based on the enlightenment and teachings of the Buddha Gautama in the early sixth century BCE in the northeastern region of modern India. Playing dominant roles in the art and culture of Southeast Asia and East Asia, this religion is based on the transcendence of human suffering and pain through the acceptance of the limitations of individuality, the surrender of worldly desires and cravings that cause disappointment and sorrow, and the deliverance from the impermanence of living and individual ego based on wealth, social position, or family through the process of enlightenment (nirvana). The religion also centers around 'anatman', or no-self, the idea that the self is in a state of action or a series of changing manifestations rather than in a state of fixed, metaphysical substance. The structure of the religion is based on the Triratna ("Three Jewels" of Buddha), a tripartite schematic for living based on three elements: Buddha (the teacher), dharma (the teaching), and sangha (community).
- Unique works in which images are formed primarily by the direct application of pigments suspended in oil, water, egg yolk, molten wax, or other liquid, arranged in masses of color, onto a generally two-dimensional surface.
- Refers to paintings having a long, narrow scroll format. Term is often used in the context of Chinese and Japanese paintings on either hanging scrolls (kakemono, if Japanese) or on handscrolls (emakimono, if Japanese). For written documents on long, rolled strips, see "scrolls (information artifacts)."
- The style and culture of the area of Tibet.
- A distinctive form of Buddhism that draws heavily on Mahayana Buddhism, which was introduced to Tibet in the seventh century. Tibetan Buddhism incorporates the esoteric tradition of tantra of Vajrayana Buddhism, features of ancient Bon shamanism, and monastic disciplines of early Theravada Buddhism. Avalokiteshvara, the Bodhisattva of Compassion, is particularly revered in Tibetan Buddhism and each Dalai Lama, the spiritual and temporal leader of Tibet, is believed to be his reincarnation. Worship includes the recitation of mantras and prayers, and the singing of hymns accompanied by the playing of drums and horns. The Tibetan canon of scripture includes the 'Kangur' and the 'Tenjur;' the Tibetan Book of the Dead (Bardo Thödröl) describes consciousness between death and rebirth. There are four major schools: Nyingma, Sakya, Kagyu, and Geluk. The religion is sometimes incorrectly called lamaism, a Western term not used by Tibetan Buddhists themselves.
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