- Refers to a broad range of alloys of copper, specifically any non-ferrous alloy of copper, tin, and zinc or other trace metals. Bronze was made before 3,000 BCE -- possibly as early as 10,000 BCE, although its common use in tools and decorative items is dated only in later artifacts. The proportions of copper and tin vary widely, from 70 to 95 percent copper in surviving ancient artifacts. Because of the copper base, bronze may be very malleable and easy to work. By the Middle Ages in Europe, it was recognized that using the metals in certain proportions could yield specific properties. Some modern bronzes contain no tin at all, substituting other metals such as aluminum, manganese, and even zinc. Historically, the term was used interchangeably with "latten." U.S. standard bronze is composed of 90% copper, 7% tin and 3% zinc. Ancient bronze alloys sometimes contained up to 14% tin.
- Refers to the period in history and the style of art that developed when the Roman Republic ceased to exist and Rome expanded its territory and was ruled by emperors. The period is generally considered to begin with Octavian's victory at the Battle of Actium in 31 BCE, and to last through the rule of the Severans. For later emperors, see "Late Antique." For the period and culture of the Holy Roman Empire, use "Holy Roman Imperial." Note that some classifications include the Tetrarchic, Constantinian, and the Holy Roman Empire in the "Roman Empire."
- Roman bronze coins valued at one-half as and issued first as cast and then as struck coins from the Republic through the 2nd century CE, and then for gold coins valued at one-half solidus issued in the Eastern Empire from the 4th through the 8th century CE.
- Articles of furniture consisting of a flat, slablike top supported on one or more legs or supports.
- Vessels of varying shape and size but which are usually taller than they are wide, varying greatly in actual form and use. In modern usage, typically refers to vessels for displaying flowers. When referring to ancient art, often refers to any ceramic or metal vessel in a range of shapes and used to hold liquids, grain, or another substance.
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