- Refers to the period in history and style of art that developed when Rome was ruled by the Republic, from its founding in 509 BCE through the Battle of Actium in 31 BCE or the formal establishment of the Empire in 27 BCE. Art produced during this period reflects the political power, glories, and distinguished ancestors of the ruling families, resulting in many portraits and historical reliefs. The style is characterized by the influence of Classical Greek art and an emphasis on extreme realism.
- Pure metallic element having symbol Ag and atomic number 47; a malleable, ductile, white metal with characteristic sheen, considered a precious metal. Silver is widely distributed throughout the world, occurring rarely as metallic silver (in Peru, Norway) but more often as silver-gold alloys and silver ore. Today silver is obtained as a byproduct in the refinement of gold, lead, copper, or zinc ores. Silver was smelted from the ore galena as early as 3800 BCE. As a pure metal, silver is second to gold in malleability and ductility, can be polished to a highly reflective surface, and used -- typically in an alloy -- in jewelry, coinage, photography, mirrors, electrical contacts, and tableware.
- Monumental structures containing at least one arched passageway and erected to honor an important person or to commemorate a significant event, particularly a victory in war. The basic form consisted of two piers connected by an arch, over which was placed a superstructure that served as a base for statues and bore commemorative inscriptions. Triumphal arches generally spanned a roadway used for triumphal processions. They are associated with ancient Roman architecture, however, they possibly developed elsewhere or from the Porta Triumphalis, which was a gate in Rome through which the victorious Roman army had to pass before entering the sacred city territory of Rome. "Arco onorario destinato a commemorare una vittoria militare. Nelle basiliche cristiane indica l'arco che divide la navata dal transetto o dal presbiterio."
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<ref name=BMC>cite web |url=http://triarte.brynmawr.edu/objects-1/info/159080 |title=Republican Denarius of Rome Issued by Mn. Aemilius Lepidus |author=Bryn Mawr College Library Special Collections |accessdate=6/15/2021 |publisher=Bryn Mawr College</ref>
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