- Refers broadly to the culture and styles associated with the territory surrounding the Nile river in northeast Africa, particularly the area of the modern nation of Egypt and dating to after the ancient periods.
- Refers to the styles and culture that developed in antiquity in the Nile Valley in the area of modern-day Egypt and southwards. For the cultures and styles of the modern nation of Egypt, use "Egypt (modern)."
First Intermediate period
- Refers to the period in Egypt from about 2150 to 2018 BCE comprising the Seventh Dynasty to the Tenth Dynasty; some sources begin with the Ninth Dynasty about 2130 BCE. During the period a shift of power occurs from the city of Memphis to Heracleopolis and later to Thebes. In general the period is characterized by obscurity and anarchy resulting in the scarcity of surviving art and architecture.
- Portions of objects that are torn, broken off from, or dislocated from their original whole.
- Refers to the first of three great period of Egyptian civilization from about 2650 to 2150 BCE comprising the Third Dynasty to Sixth Dynasty; some sources begin with the Fourth Dynasty about 2575 BCE and extend through the Eighth Dynasty ending about 2134 BCE. The period is characterized by royal monuments of the highest quality including the pyramid complexes of the Fourth Dynasty which symbolize the absolute sovereignty of Egypt's kings and the continued use of artistic conventions introduced in the Early Dynastic period. The end of the period is characterized by a general decline in the arts reflecting the political circumstances of the time.
- Sculptures in which the ornaments or figures are attached to a background from which they stand out to a greater or lesser degree. Reliefs are often used as architectural decoration and because of their capacity for narration they are often used for pictorial narrative purposes.
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<ref name=BMC>cite web |url=http://triarte.brynmawr.edu/objects-1/info/153433 |title=Old Kingdom/First Intermediate Period Egyptian Relief Fragment |author=Bryn Mawr College Library Special Collections |accessdate=6/15/2021 |publisher=Bryn Mawr College</ref>
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