- Art of writing, particularly the creation of beautiful, elegant letters or flourishes by hand with a pen, either in unjoined characters or in cursive writing.
- Works composed primarily of beautiful, elegant letters or flourishes that are typically created by hand with a pen, either in unjoined characters or in cursive writing. May also refer to similar works created by computer or another means.
- Refers to works executed by cutting a figure or design out of a solid material such as stone or wood. It typically refers to works that are relatively small in size, are part of a larger work, or are not considered art. For large and medium-sized three-dimensional works of art, use the broader term "sculpture" or another appropriate term.
- The cultures, styles, and periods characteristic of China. To specifically refer to the cultures of ancient Chine, use "Ancient Chinese."
- Refers to the Chinese dynastic culture, style, and period dating 386 to 534 CE. Its capital was initially at Pingcheng but was moved south to Luoyang in 493-494 by Emperor Xiaowendi (reigned 471-499) where a new magnificent city was built on the ruins of the old Chinese capital; by 534 the population was more than half a million. Buddhist art flourished under state and private patronage during most of this period. Cave temples at Yungang were begun in ca. 460; thousands of craftsmen worked for about 35 years to make the temples and adorn them with sculpture and painting. Other cave temples were later made at Longmen at the instigation of Xiaowendi. While Yungang features static icons in a Gandharan style, the sculpture at Longmen is more linear, demonstrating the emerging Chinese style. Northern Wei burial pottery, also influenced by Buddhism, emphasizes frontality and symmetry. The nomadic Touba people began to rely on Chinese institutions to organize and run their state and they also became accustomed to Chinese culture and luxuries; under Xiaowendi Chinese became the official language and the use of Tuoba language was forbidden. The distinction between the 'barbarian' north and 'civilized' south became less marked; nevertheless, northern frontiersmen began to feel neglected and so they revolted, leading to the collapse of the Northern Wei dynasty. Northern China was divided into the Eastern and Western Wei dynasties in 534.
- Images made by placing a material such as paper or cloth over a relief, or an incised or textured surface, and rubbing with a pigment in order to transfer the image.
- Refers to paintings having a long, narrow scroll format. Term is often used in the context of Chinese and Japanese paintings on either hanging scrolls (kakemono, if Japanese) or on handscrolls (emakimono, if Japanese). For written documents on long, rolled strips, see "scrolls (information artifacts)."
- Long strips of flexible material used for written documents and rolled for ease of handling and storage. For paintings on either hanging scrolls or handscrolls, use "scroll paintings."
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