{ "objects" : [ { "embark_ID" : 153433, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/153433", "Disp_Access_No" : "S.32", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "2686 BCE - 2055 BCE", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "2686 BCE", "_Disp_End_Date" : "2055 BCE", "Disp_Title" : "Old Kingdom/First Intermediate Period Egyptian Relief Fragment", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "", "Sort_Artist" : "", "Disp_Dimen" : "4 1/2 in. (11.4 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "4 1/2 in.", "Disp_Width" : "", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "Stone", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "Stone", "Info_Page_Comm" : "<SPAN>Relief of woman standing with her arms at her sides, a second figure's face is near to her hand. Second figure's hair is split into two upright pieces.<BR/><BR/>From conservation report 12/18/2014:<BR/><BR/> "<SPAN STYLE="font-family:'Helvetica';font-size:11pt">A small fragment of an Egyptian relief depicting a standing woman with the head of another figure (possibly kneeling or bent) at the bottom right. The primary figure wears a tripartite wig and wide collar necklace, and the secondary figure wears a distinctive headdress or wig that stands upright and splits into two sections. The piece is carved in low bas-relief from a buff-colored limestone. The object is in fragmentary condition, with a repair at the top left that bisects the face of the standing figure and several large chips to the edges."<BR/><BR/>"</SPAN><SPAN STYLE="font-family:'Calibri';font-size:11pt">Due to the fragmentary nature of this object, hypotheses about its original context necessarily rely on very few extant details. Fortunately, there are several well-preserved details on the surface that are diagnostic, including the straight angle of the eyebrow over an almond shaped eye (both quite large relative to the size of the face), the elongated proportions of the figure, the subtle curve of the standing figure’s leg as it connects to the hip, and the fine lines that delineate the texture of both headdresses, the fingers and necklace decoration of the standing figure. However, there are also a two puzzling details that thwart efforts at interpretation: the headdress or wig of the secondary figure and the horizontal bar that intersects with the proper left arm of the primary figure, but does not pass behind the figure.<BR/><BR/>"The relief typifies the high level of stylization and idealization of the human figure traditional in Ancient Egyptian art. The standing figure is shown in composite perspective, with the head, breasts, hips, and legs shown in profile, and the torso and arms frontal. The female figure is highly idealized and shown as slender, youthful and beautiful, with a tight sheath dress, tripartite wig and collar necklace. The tiered decoration of the necklace is visible in raking light. The pose, hairstyle and jewelry indicate that this woman is elite, as these are typical attributes of either a royal figure, a goddess or a woman involved in a funerary passage. The relative significance of figures is traditionally illustrated with hierarchical scale. As the two figures in the fragment are shown at the same scale, it is possible that this formed part of a secondary scene in a larger work and likely that the female figure is not the main subject of the work, but perhaps a relative (wife?) of the main subject. The slim and elongated proportions of the female figure and rounded edges of the relief are key in approximating a date for this fragment. Several Egyptologists have been consulted during the course of examination, and their dating hypotheses range from Late Old Kingdom to First Intermediate Period based on these characteristics. Dr. Edward Brovarski, a specialist in the First Intermediate Period, proposed dating the fragment to Dynasty XI based on these features, as well as the manner in which the wig curves around the shoulder (see Figs. 3.1 and 3.2).</SPAN><SPAN STYLE="font-family:'Helvetica';font-size:11pt"><BR/><BR/>"</SPAN><SPAN STYLE="font-family:'Calibri';font-size:11pt">The work is carved in low bas-relief, likely for an interior space such as a tomb chapel (sunken or incised reliefs were reserved for outside walls, so as to remain legible at all hours of the day). It is not possible to determine whether it would have composed part of a grave stele or wall decoration, although identification of the secondary figure may assist in this determination. The identity of the second figure remains unknown; no comparanda or discussion of this unique headdress could be located. It has been suggested that the figure could be a muu-dancer.<BR/></SPAN><SPAN STYLE="font-family:'Helvetica';font-size:11pt"><BR/>"</SPAN><SPAN STYLE="font-family:'Calibri';font-size:11pt">These figures performed in private funerals, and are identifiable by their distinctive headgear made from reeds, assembled into a cone that gathered at the top and flared outwards (see Fig. 3.3). This does not provide an entirely satisfactory match to the headdress depicted in this fragment. Alternately, as the headdress does not appear to be a derivative of the highly standardized and symbolic crowns of gods, royalty and important figures, it could indicate that the figure is a foreigner.<BR/></SPAN><SPAN STYLE="font-family:'Helvetica';font-size:11pt"><BR/>"</SPAN><SPAN STYLE="font-family:'Calibri';font-size:11pt">Likewise, no comparanda or precedent for the horizontal bar on the right side could be located. Raised horizontal and vertical lines like this are commonly used to delineate registers of hieroglyphs and figural scenes, however these do not directly intersect with the figure, as is this case in this fragment. Offering trays and tables or furniture elements are often shown in relief scenes, but again, are shown either at a distance from the figure or crossing behind the figure."</SPAN><SPAN STYLE="font-family:'Helvetica';font-size:11pt"><BR/></SPAN></SPAN>", "Dedication" : "", "Copyright_Type" : "", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Egyptian", "Creation_Place2" : "Egypt", "Department" : "Archaeology", "Obj_Name" : "relief fragment", "Period" : "Late Old Kingdom to First Intermediate Period", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/S.32_BMC_f_2.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/S.32_BMC_f_2.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/S.32_BMC_f_2.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/S.32_BMC_f_2.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "12031", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] }, ] }