{ "objects" : [ { "embark_ID" : 153672, "URL" : "https://triarte.brynmawr.edu/Objects-1/info/153672", "Disp_Access_No" : "P.2496", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "Second half of 4th century BCE", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "350 BCE", "_Disp_End_Date" : "301 BCE", "Disp_Title" : "South Italian Black-Gloss Lebes Gamikos (Mixing Bowl for Weddings)", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "", "Sort_Artist" : "", "Disp_Dimen" : "3 1/16 x 4 3/16 x 3/8 in. (7.7 x 10.7 x 1 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "3 1/16 in.", "Disp_Width" : "4 3/16 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "Clay", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "Clay", "Info_Page_Comm" : "A small lebes gamikos. The handles join the body vertically at the edge of shoulder, which curves in nearly hoizontally to form the mouth. The exterior surface of the piece is covered with a fine metallic black glaze, with the exception of a broad reserved band at the base of the body. The rim of the base is glazed, but the underside is not. The interior of the vessel is also plain. See catalog card for profile drawing. There is a small handle, whose edges are covered in plaster, loose inside the lebes gamikos. It doesn't seem to be original; although the vessel lacks a handle, the loose piece seems smaller and with a different glaze than the main body of the piece. Previous catalog entry: South Italian black glazed ware. Lebes gamikos with ring foot and steep, outward curving side walls, which then turn inward at an almost horizontal plane where the handles are joined to the shoulder. The mouth is surrounded by a raised diagonal rim. Two nearly vertical loop-handles are attached to the shoulder where the side walls turn inwards. The exterior is glazed by a gray-black covering, metallic and iridescent; the only exception is a reserved band some 10 mm. high immediately above the juncture of the foot to the vessel. The interior, the underside of the base and its resting surface are also unglazed. A good parallel for shape, dimensions and clay, but lacking reserved band on exterior, is a black-glazed lebes gamikos in Milan, H.A. Collection inv. C87 (see L. Merzagora, I vasi a vernice nera della collezione H.A. di Milano (milan:1971) 12 no. 61, pls. XXI, LVII). P. mingazzini believes this shape of lebes gamikos originated in Apulia (CVA Capua 3 (29) pl. 6.1 (1309) p. 11).", "Dedication" : "Gift of Howard Comfort, Professor of Classics, Haverford College", "Copyright_Type" : "", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "South Italian, Precampana", "Creation_Place2" : "Italy", "Department" : "Archaeology", "Obj_Name" : "lebes gamikos", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://triarte.brynmawr.edu/Media/images/P.2496_BMC_b.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://triarte.brynmawr.edu/Media/Thumbnails/P.2496_BMC_b.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://triarte.brynmawr.edu/Media/Previews/P.2496_BMC_b.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/P.2496_BMC_b.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "0", "_SurrogateID" : "16610", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , { "ImagePath" : "https://triarte.brynmawr.edu/Media/images/P.2496_BMC_f.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : 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"1970", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1979", "Disp_Title" : "Sande Society Sowei Helmet Mask", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "unknown Mende", "Sort_Artist" : "unknown Mende", "Disp_Dimen" : "28 in. x 11 1/2 in. x 12 in. (71.12 cm x 29.21 cm x 30.48 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "28 in.", "Disp_Width" : "11 1/2 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "with fiber collar", "Medium" : "Wood and plant fiber", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "Wood and plant fiber", "Info_Page_Comm" : "This mask has the distinction of being one of the few ritual masks worn by African women. The Sande Society is a fellowship of women responsible for preparing young Mende girls for adulthood and for their roles as wives, mothers, and female community members. Worn during initiation rites, this stylized headdress embodies womanhood, elegance, and metamorphosis for young Mende women. It also represents the water deity, Sowo, whose mission is to protect young women. Ideal female traits are represented in the mask: submissiveness is conveyed with the downcast position of the eyes, discretion in the small size of the ears and mouth, intelligence in the large forehead, and beauty and eroticism in the abundant hair and ringed neck. Typical Mende design with patinated, long fiber collar attached to base. The face has fine, small features, pronounced mouth, slit-eyes, adn large forehead. There are two neck rolls, scarification on cheeks, and an elaborate coiffure including a disk-shaped ornament on forehead and rectangular ornaments in hair. Plant fiber has been pulled fine, dyed, and braided to resemble human hair. The shapes of "packets" on top of the mask represent amulets, and are related to the fact that many Africans converted to Islam.", "Dedication" : "Gift of Mace Neufeld and Helen Katz Neufeld, Class of 1953", "Copyright_Type" : "", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Mende, West African, African", "Creation_Place2" : "Sierra Leone", "Department" : "Anthropology", "Obj_Name" : "mask", "Period" : "", "Style" : "West Africa", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://triarte.brynmawr.edu/Media/images/99.3.142_BMC_f.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://triarte.brynmawr.edu/Media/Thumbnails/99.3.142_BMC_f.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://triarte.brynmawr.edu/Media/Previews/99.3.142_BMC_f.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/99.3.142_BMC_f.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "0", "_SurrogateID" : "7446", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , { "ImagePath" : "https://triarte.brynmawr.edu/Media/images/99.3.142_BMC_f_2.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://triarte.brynmawr.edu/Media/Thumbnails/99.3.142_BMC_f_2.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://triarte.brynmawr.edu/Media/Previews/99.3.142_BMC_f_2.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/99.3.142_BMC_f_2.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "0", "_SurrogateID" : "6890", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , { "ImagePath" : "https://triarte.brynmawr.edu/Media/images/99.3.142_BMC_f_4.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://triarte.brynmawr.edu/Media/Thumbnails/99.3.142_BMC_f_4.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://triarte.brynmawr.edu/Media/Previews/99.3.142_BMC_f_4.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/99.3.142_BMC_f_4.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "0", "_SurrogateID" : "41573", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , { "ImagePath" : "https://triarte.brynmawr.edu/Media/images/99.3.142_BMC_pl.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://triarte.brynmawr.edu/Media/Thumbnails/99.3.142_BMC_pl.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://triarte.brynmawr.edu/Media/Previews/99.3.142_BMC_pl.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/99.3.142_BMC_pl.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "0", "_SurrogateID" : "41574", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , { "ImagePath" : "https://triarte.brynmawr.edu/Media/images/99.3.142_BMC_pr.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://triarte.brynmawr.edu/Media/Thumbnails/99.3.142_BMC_pr.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://triarte.brynmawr.edu/Media/Previews/99.3.142_BMC_pr.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/99.3.142_BMC_pr.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "0", "_SurrogateID" : "41575", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , { "ImagePath" : "https://triarte.brynmawr.edu/Media/images/99.3.142_BMC_pr_2.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://triarte.brynmawr.edu/Media/Thumbnails/99.3.142_BMC_pr_2.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://triarte.brynmawr.edu/Media/Previews/99.3.142_BMC_pr_2.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/99.3.142_BMC_pr_2.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "0", "_SurrogateID" : "41576", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , { "ImagePath" : "https://triarte.brynmawr.edu/Media/images/99.3.142_BMC_f_3.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://triarte.brynmawr.edu/Media/Thumbnails/99.3.142_BMC_f_3.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://triarte.brynmawr.edu/Media/Previews/99.3.142_BMC_f_3.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/99.3.142_BMC_f_3.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "43155", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 145838, "URL" : "https://triarte.brynmawr.edu/Objects-1/info/145838", "Disp_Access_No" : "99.3.141", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "Mid 20th century", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1933", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1966", "Disp_Title" : "Poro Society Mende Gbetu Mask", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "unknown Mende", "Sort_Artist" : "unknown Mende", "Disp_Dimen" : "30 in. (76.2 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "30 in.", "Disp_Width" : "", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "Carved and incised wood with patina", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "Carved and incised wood with patina", "Info_Page_Comm" : "Mende Sande Society Helmet mask w/long neck and small head atop the Helmet. This type (Gbetu) is danced by the men. When young girls in parts of the West Atlantic region reach a certain age they are initiated into the Sande women’s society, whose purpose is to teach girls the roles of proper women within their communities. Once the training is complete, the girls are then considered women and are brought back into the community to be celebrated. A leader of the women’s society, known as a ndoli jowei, dances in masquerade with this type of helmet mask. Sande Society helmet masks symbolize an ideal of beauty with their high foreheads, elaborate braided hairstyles, and healthy black complexions. According to oral tradition, the Sande spirit is a water spirit; therefore it is believed that the rings on the neck of the mask symbolize the rippling of water. Among the Temne, the rings of the mask are viewed as the outer shell of a moth undergoing metamorphosis, which represents the girl’s transformation into a mature woman.", "Dedication" : "Gift of Mace Neufeld and Helen Katz Neufeld, Class of 1953", "Copyright_Type" : "", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Mende, Sierra Leonean, West African, African", "Creation_Place2" : "Sierra Leone", "Department" : "Anthropology", "Obj_Name" : "helmet mask", "Period" : "", "Style" : "West Africa", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://triarte.brynmawr.edu/Media/images/99.3.141_BMC_f.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://triarte.brynmawr.edu/Media/Thumbnails/99.3.141_BMC_f.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://triarte.brynmawr.edu/Media/Previews/99.3.141_BMC_f.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/99.3.141_BMC_f.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "0", "_SurrogateID" : "6889", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , { "ImagePath" : "https://triarte.brynmawr.edu/Media/images/99.3.141_BMC_f_ed.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://triarte.brynmawr.edu/Media/Thumbnails/99.3.141_BMC_f_ed.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://triarte.brynmawr.edu/Media/Previews/99.3.141_BMC_f_ed.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/99.3.141_BMC_f_ed.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "38168", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 145814, "URL" : "https://triarte.brynmawr.edu/Objects-1/info/145814", "Disp_Access_No" : "99.3.26", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "Likely 1933-1967", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1933", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1967", "Disp_Title" : "Sande Society Sowei Helmet Mask", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Manowulo", "Sort_Artist" : "Manowulo", "Disp_Dimen" : "14.5 x 8.5 x 10 in. (36.83 x 21.59 x 25.4 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "14.5 in.", "Disp_Width" : "8.5 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "Carved, stamped, and appliqued wood, and aluminum", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "Carved, stamped, and appliqued wood, and aluminum", "Info_Page_Comm" : "Typical Mende design w/small face, pointed features, neck rolls and perforation for attachments at base. Slit eyes. Face surrounded by aluminum latticework. Tall, bisected coiffure w/ 2 twisted & pierced braids at top. Aluminum earrings. When young girls in parts of the West Atlantic region reach a certain age they are initiated into the Sande women’s society, whose purpose is to teach girls the roles of proper women within their communities. Once the training is complete, the girls are then considered women and are brought back into the community to be celebrated. A leader of the women’s society, known as a ndoli jowei, dances in masquerade with this type of helmet mask. Sande Society helmet masks symbolize an ideal of beauty with their high foreheads, elaborate braided hairstyles, and healthy black complexions. According to oral tradition, the Sande spirit is a water spirit; therefore it is believed that the rings on the neck of the mask symbolize the rippling of water. Among the Temne, the rings of the mask are viewed as the outer shell of a moth undergoing metamorphosis, which represents the girl’s transformation into a mature woman.", "Dedication" : "Gift of Mace Neufeld and Helen Katz Neufeld, Class of 1953", "Copyright_Type" : "", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Sewa-Mende, Sierra Leonean, West African, African", "Creation_Place2" : "Sierra Leone", "Department" : "Anthropology", "Obj_Name" : "helmet mask", "Period" : "", "Style" : "West Africa", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://triarte.brynmawr.edu/Media/images/99.3.26_BMC_i.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://triarte.brynmawr.edu/Media/Thumbnails/99.3.26_BMC_i.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://triarte.brynmawr.edu/Media/Previews/99.3.26_BMC_i.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/99.3.26_BMC_i.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "0", "_SurrogateID" : "208372", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , { "ImagePath" : 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